There had always been an argument about who should rule Normandy. In 1066 William the conquer, Duke of Normandy, invaded England and took control over it. Because William had kept his title of Duke of Normandy. Edward was a vassal to King Philip of France. Edward refused to give feudal homage and said he was the rightful king not Philip. He could say that; because he was the closest heir to the thrown but it was through his mother’s side of kin and there was a rule that because it was through his mothers side and not his fathers he was not allowed to inherit the thrown.
Another argument was about the land of Gascony; part of the geographically of France but was a duchy of England. Duke of Gascony owed homage to King Philip.
In 1337, there was a meeting held with the great council of Paris and it was decided that Gascony should be returned to France. The Council made this decision because Edward was not behaving himself properly and because he had sheltered an enemy of there’s; Robert the 3rd. War started because of this.
The hundred year War is divided into three parts: Edwardian Era (1337-1360), Carolina War (1369-1389), and Lancastrian Era (1415-1453).
The Military before this long war (of course means long essay), had heavy cavalry but Edward ordered his men to fight on foot, only using their Horses to get to the battle and to pursue their enemy. A lighter cavalry was developed and it became known as the “Hobelars”.
The first Battle was on June 22, 1340. Battle of Sluys. King Edward sailed his army through the channel, the French saw them and ran to their ships to fight against them. Edward tricked them, making them think he was sailing away but suddenly turned back with a gust of wind and crushed the French fleet. He won the very first battle.
Second Battle; Battle of Crecy. In 1346, Edward invaded Caen and captured it. Philip came out to battle against him. Philip was defeated and Edward won the battle of Crecy and captured the city of Calais. The French allies, the Scotts had there King captured by Edward.
In 1348 a black death (the plague) swept through all the land and stopped the war for a while.
War soon started up again in 1356. Edward’s son the black Knight was at the head of England and France had a new King; John the 2nd. The third battle was led by black Knight. Black Knight captured King John and Dauphin, John’s son reigned in his stead. England won another battle, Battle of Poitiers.
There was pace from 1360-1368. Peace treaty of Bretigny. Still through this time though John 2nd was still in captivity. John died in 1364 and was succeeded by Charles the 5th.
Peace ended when Aquitaine revolted against France over tax disagreements. Charles then called for a meeting, inviting: council of Paris, Gaskon Lord and the black Knight. Black Knight said he would come but with 60,000 men behind him. War broke out.
Edward and Black prince were failing in health and Black Knight died a year before his father Edward. Robert the 2nd, son of black Knight, became king as a little child.
When Robert was reining France regained some of their land back except for Calais and England dealt with inner turmoil and a second peace was formed lasting through 1389-1415.
1415 a new English King, Henry the 5th broke the peace and sailed to France and resumed the war once again. He won a victory at Harfleur and was returning to Calais but the French army met him in the battle of Agincourt. The field of Agincourt was a small and very muddy a disadvantage to the French but not to the English. The French sank in the mud with their heavy artillery and could not fight as well but the English having very light artillery won the battle. That day 6,000 French died and 400 English died. Henry took Normandy and became Duke.
Treaty of Troys brought peace for a little while and agreed that Henry’s son would inherit the French thrown but ended in 1422 when Henry fell ill and died. Henry’s son was just an infant at that time and so could not claim the thrown. Duke of Bedford was to keep an eye on the transfer and the war.
The English’s luck changed from good to bad when Joan of Arc , a French Peasant tried to see Charles the 7th who was in the line for King (the French king had died). She tried to see the king three time and eventually she was able to speak with him after the defeat at Armagnac in 1429. She told him she would help lead the army. Joan then wrote a letter to the English saying if they don’t leave the army would drive them out. Joan set out with the army. Seized the English church and destroyed Jargeau and Troyes, to clear a path to Reims for Charles the 7th so he could be crowned king. Joan help defeat several other city’s but was captured by the English and was killed. Joan is know as the “Maiden of Orleans”.
It was several years later that the French defeated the English. English was defeated in 1453.
7th grade History Essay lesson 75.