Francisco Vasquez De Coronado and Juan Ponce de Leon. Spanish Explorers.

Coronado was born 1510 A.D to a noble Family in Spain. He was a Spanish Explorer.

In 1535 he decided to travel to the new world (America but wasn’t called that quite yet). He arrived in new Spain (Mexico) and became governor there. Later he was elected to find the seven cities of gold ( Cibola ).  He never found the seven cities but he was the first explorer to see the grand Canyon in Arizona and travel many parts of southwest in America. The places he traveled were: Arizona, New Mexico, and California.

For the rest of his days he lived in Mexico after his expedition. He died peacefully in 1554.

Juan Ponce de Leon was born in 1474 to a noble family. He is another Spanish Explorer of the New world.

He traveled with Columbus on his second expedition.

In 1508 he was sent by the Spanish crown to search out Puerto Rico. He was very successful and returned to the Spanish king with very much gold.

He became the governor of Puerto Rico and brought his family there.

Juan Leon wanted to find more gold and he searched new lands. In 1513 he landed in Florida and searched for the Island of Bimini and for the Fountain of youth.

He returned back to Spain and was also made governor  of Florida and in 1521 was wounded by the Indians when he was exploring Florida.

He died from his wound a little later.


7th grade History essay, lesson 100.


The war of the Roses

The was of the Roses is a civil war between two houses in England. The Lancasters and the Yorks. They were fighting over who should be king.

The civil war was called the war of the Roses; because of the badge they wore. The Lancasters had a white Rose on their badge and the Yorks had a red Rose on their badge.

The civil war began when Edward the 3rd died and his grandson Richard the 2nd became King. Richard didn’t stay king for long when his cousin Henry the 4th of Lancaster usurped the throne from him and broke the line of succession.

Henry the 5th, Henry’s the 4th son gained popularity during the 100 year war and became king after his father but died shortly afterwards. His infant son Henry the 6th became king but Henry the 6th had a sickness; where once in awhile he would have a mental breakdown and be sick for quite a few days. He was a weak king and Richard duke of the Yorks used Henry the 6th illness to strengthen his claim to the throne.

Richard led a small army against London in 1455 and fought the first battle of the war of the Roses. The battle at St. Alban. He was named after the battle. The protector of the thrown.

The people liked Richard better than Henry the 6th. Richard was supported by Earl of Warwick.

In 1459 there was another battle. This battle was the battle of Ludford bridge. The Lancasters won this battle and the Yorks had to leave London.

Another battle was fought and the Yorks won. Richard capture Henry the 6th and he claimed the thrown. Parliament voted that Richard would be the successor of Henry the 6th and not be the king just yet until Henry died. Richard went to go meat the Lancasters but on the way was attached in the battle of Wakefield. Richard was killed in this battle along with his son. The Queen Margret of Lancaster ordered that their heads be put on the gates of York.

After the battle Richards son Edward took over as duke of York. Edward continued his fathers fight. He lost many small battles against the Lancasters, two of them were the battle of Mortimer’s cross and the second battle of St. Albans.  Earl of Warwick Joined him in the battles.

Edward was unofficially crowned king by Parliament and could not take the thrown yet until King Henry the 6th and his Queen Margret were no longer in control.

The battle of Towton was to decided to be the last battle in the war of the Roses and they gave no quarter in the fight; they couldn’t keep slaves and they could not make a treaty. There was about 20,000 thousand English soldiers who died in this battle. The Yorks won and the remaining Lancasters fled to the north including Henry 6th, Queen Margret and their son.

Edward was officially crowned king in 1461 but in 1464 Earl of Warwick suddenly changed sides to the Lancasters and rebelled against Edward. He won a small victory but was killed in the battle of Barnet; because of the confusion in the fight, he was killed by his own soldiers.

Queen Margret fought against Edward but died in battle along with her son.

Henry Tutor a Lancaster, won the last rebellion against Edward in 1485. He married Elizabeth of York and brought peace to both the families. He created a new dynasty that had a pink, red and white Rose to signify the end of the war of the Roses.


7th grade History essay, lesson 95.

Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael

Leonardo was born in 1452 in Florence. He was a master in Guild of St.Luke by the age of 20. Leonardo was a painter and his first work was in pen and ink, the picture was of the valley of Arno. One of his most famous painting is “Mona Lisa. I’m sure everyone has seen or heard of it. It is one of the most famous paintings in the world. Leonardo spent many years perfecting his painting the “Mona Lisa”. We don’t know who the model was in the painting.

Leonardo did many other things beside painting. He worked on many scientific and mathematical projects. Which included a flying machine. He wrote all his observations down in 13,000 pages.

Leonardo died in 1519.

Raphael was an Italian painter. He had a very big workshop where he constructed he paintings. His most famous painting is: “The school of Athens”. The people in this painting are Raphael himself, Socrates, Plato, and many other Philosophers.

Raphael died very young. He was 37 when he died.


7th grade History Essay, lesson 90.

Gutenberg and his printing Press

Gutenberg was born in Germany, son of an upper class merchant.

He learned blacksmith and goldsmith from his father, who worked in a mint.

In 1439 they were making polished metal mirrors for a display. This display was going to be used for a collection of relics but because of a flood it was put off for a year. The money had already been spent for the mirrors but they couldn’t pay it back to them. Gutenberg let them in on a little secret he had,we aren’t sure what this secret was but many say it was about his printing press.

In 1444,  the press was finished and in 1450 was finally in full operation.

Gutenberg was able to make a high quality types that would last. He created a form to mold his types. He had about 290 separate slots for letters and other special designs. Gutenberg’s press had letters that could be moved around to form words, once a page was finished he could reuse the letters and move them to form a different word, The type was inked when finished and then pressed down on to the paper.

Gutenberg also was one of the first to use oil based ink for paper. The ink lasted much longer and was a better quality then the water based ink.

One of the biggest  projects that Gutenberg did was to print the Vulgate bible. There are only now 48 copies of this bible.

The printing press helped publish books and other writing so that more than one person could have a copy and it was a cheaper way of printing than what was used before.


7th grade History, lesson 85 essay.



The Black Death Plague

The black Death is a plague. A Plague is a bacteria that affects one person and when that person comes in contact with another or spreads it another way, another person gets affected, including animals. It was spread mostly by rodents and fleas.

The black Death attached in Europe in the mid 14th century A.D. It killed about 30-60 percent of Europe’s population.

The symptoms of the black Death are: fever, chills, vomiting, aching and red spots that would turn black.

The black Death got its name from the red spots that would turn black. Whenever they did turn black that person would die in about three days.

People were scared of getting the plague and they quarantined the people who were sick and some of the healthy people ran of into the hills.

“Ring around the Rosy” is a poem to describe the black Death and how the people would respond to it. The first verse is;  “Ring around the Rosy” the rosy is the red spot and the ring is the dark red circle that would go around the spot. Second verse is; “Pocket full of posies” people would gather flowers and sniff the them, because of all the deaths around them, they wanted a refreshed smell. The last verse is; “Ashes, ashes, we all fall down” there was so many deaths that they could not bury them all so they burned the bodies instead, it also helped to get rid of the disease faster.

There was a lack of food because so many were sick, that they could not keep up with the crops.

The black Death was about over by 1350 but later in 9th century it did strike again.

7th grade History essay, lesson 80.


The Hundred year War

There had always been an argument about who should rule Normandy. In 1066 William the conquer, Duke of Normandy, invaded England and took control over it. Because William had kept his title of Duke of Normandy. Edward was a vassal to King Philip of France. Edward refused to give feudal homage and said he was the rightful king not Philip. He could say that; because he was the closest heir to the thrown but it was through his mother’s side of kin and there was a rule that because it was through his mothers side and not his fathers he was not allowed to inherit the thrown.

Another argument was about the land of Gascony; part of the geographically of France but was a duchy of England. Duke of Gascony owed homage to King Philip.

In 1337, there was a meeting held with the great council of Paris and it was decided that Gascony should be returned to France. The Council made this decision because Edward was not behaving himself properly and because he had sheltered an enemy of there’s; Robert the 3rd. War started because of this.

The hundred year War is divided into three parts: Edwardian Era (1337-1360), Carolina War (1369-1389), and Lancastrian Era (1415-1453).

The Military before this long war (of course means long essay), had heavy cavalry but Edward ordered his men to fight on foot, only using their Horses to get to the battle and to pursue their enemy. A lighter cavalry was developed and it became known as the “Hobelars”.

The first Battle was on June 22, 1340. Battle of Sluys. King Edward sailed his army through the channel, the French saw them and ran to their ships to fight against them. Edward tricked them, making them think he was sailing away but suddenly turned back with a gust of wind and crushed the French fleet. He won the very first battle.

Second Battle; Battle of Crecy. In 1346, Edward invaded Caen and captured it. Philip came out to battle against him. Philip was defeated and Edward won the battle of Crecy and captured the city of Calais. The French allies, the Scotts had there King captured by Edward.

In 1348 a black death (the plague) swept through all the land and stopped the war for a while.

War soon started up again in 1356. Edward’s son the black Knight was at the head of England and France had a new King; John the 2nd. The third battle was led by black Knight. Black Knight captured King John and Dauphin,  John’s son reigned in his stead. England won another battle, Battle of Poitiers.

There was pace from 1360-1368. Peace treaty of Bretigny. Still through this time though John 2nd was still in captivity. John died in 1364 and was succeeded by Charles the 5th.

Peace ended when Aquitaine revolted against France over tax disagreements. Charles then called for a meeting, inviting: council of Paris, Gaskon Lord and the black Knight. Black Knight said he would come but with 60,000 men behind him. War broke out.

Edward and Black prince were failing in health and Black Knight died a year before his father Edward. Robert the 2nd, son of black Knight, became king as a little child.

When Robert was reining France regained some of their land back except for Calais and England dealt with inner turmoil and a second peace was formed lasting through 1389-1415.

1415 a new English King, Henry the 5th broke the peace and sailed to France and resumed the war once again. He won a victory at Harfleur and was returning to Calais but the French army met him in the battle of Agincourt. The field of Agincourt was a small and very muddy a disadvantage to the French but not to the English. The French sank in the mud with their heavy artillery and could not fight as well but the English having very light artillery won the battle. That day 6,000 French died and 400 English died. Henry took Normandy and became Duke.

Treaty of Troys brought peace for a little while and agreed that Henry’s son would inherit the French thrown but ended in 1422 when Henry  fell ill and died. Henry’s son was just an infant at that time and so could not claim the thrown. Duke of Bedford was to keep an eye on the transfer and the war.

The English’s luck changed from good to bad when  Joan of Arc , a French Peasant tried to see Charles the 7th who was in the line for King (the French king had died). She tried to see the king three time and eventually she was able to speak with him after the defeat at Armagnac in 1429. She told him she would help lead the army. Joan then wrote a letter to the English saying if they don’t leave the army would drive them out. Joan set out with the army. Seized the English church and  destroyed  Jargeau and Troyes, to clear a path to Reims for Charles the 7th so he could be crowned king. Joan help defeat several other city’s but was captured by the English and was killed. Joan is know as the “Maiden of Orleans”.

It was several years later that the French defeated the English. English was defeated in 1453.


7th grade History Essay lesson 75.



Petrarch was born at dawn on July 20, 1304 in the city of Arezzo in central Italy. Petrarch was a poetry writer but before he became one he went to school with his brother to study law in Montpellier, France, in 1316,and later in Bologna, Italy. He did not like Law but was interested in  Latin Literature, and writing. Later on after is father died in 1326,  and he abandoned law and worked on is writing. I guess you could say Petrarch did not fit the in to the world around him. He new how to write and read but many knew around him did not. In 1341 on April 8th he traveled to Rome and accepted the crown as poet laureate. Petrarch is also seen as the first tourist because he went on vacation for fun to Europe and in 1336 he climbed Mt. Ventoux, just for fun ( most people would go around the Mountain). Petrarch is also know for starting humanism (man can do anything without God), and the first person to help the time of the Renaissance. Petrarch wrote 366 poems of the poems 317 are sonnets and one of his poems he wrote (wasn’t published though until three years after his death) was about the second Punic war. Petrarch died on July 19, 1374.

7th grade History